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The Denial of the Historicity of Jesus in Past and Present

Die Leugnung der Geschichtlichkeit Jesu in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart was a 1926 book in German by Arthur Drews on Christ myth theory. The book is a historical review of some 35 major deniers of Jesus historicity radicals, mythicists covering th ...

Historicity of Muhammad

While the existence of the Islamic prophet Muhammad is established by contemporaneous or near-contemporaneous historical records, attempts to distinguish between the historical elements and the ahistorical elements of many of the reports of Muham ...

Ākāsagarbha

Ākāsagarbha Bodhisattva or Akasagarbha Bodhisattva is a bodhisattva who is associated with the great element of space. He is also sometimes called Gaganagañja, which means "sky-jewel."

Aksayamati

Aksayamati is a bodhisattva who appears in the Lotus Sutra and the Aksayamatinirdesa Sūtra within the larger Mahāvaipulya Mahāsamghāta Sūtra. He is recognized as one of the sixteen bodhisattvas of the auspicious aeon bhadrakalpa. He also has the ...

Bala Bodhisattva

The Bala Bodhisattva is an ancient Indian statue of a Bodhisattva, found in 1904-1905 by German archaeologist F.O. Oertel in Sarnath, India. The statue has been decisive in matching the reign of Kanishka with contemporary sculptural style, especi ...

Bodhisattvas of the Earth

Bodhisattvas of the Earth, also sometimes referred to as "Bodhisattvas from the Underground," "Bodhisattvas Taught by the Original Buddha," or "earth bodhisattvas," are the infinite number of bodhisattvas who, in the 15th chapter of the Lotus Sut ...

Cintāmanicakra

Cintāmanicakra is a bodhisattva and a manifestation of Avalokitesvara. He is counted as one among six forms that represent salvation afforded to beings among the six realms of samsara. The symbols of his original vow are the Cintāmani and the cri ...

Karmapa

The Karmapa Karmapa, more formally as Gyalwang Karmapa, and informally as the Karmapa Lama) is the head of the Karma Kagyu, the largest sub-school of the Kagyu, itself one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The historical seat of the ...

Kurukullā

Kurukullā is a female, peaceful to semi-wrathful Yidam in Tibetan Buddhism particularly associated with rites of magnetization or enchantment. Her Sanskrit name is of unclear origin.

Mahāsattva

A mahāsattva is a great bodhisattva who has practiced Buddhism for a long time and reached a very high level on the path to awakening. Generally refers to bodhisattvas who have reached at least the seventh of the ten bhumis. The transcription of ...

Mahasthamaprapta

Mahāsthāmaprāpta is a bodhisattva mahāsattva that represents the power of wisdom, often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokitesvara, especially in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means "arrival of the great strength". Mahāsthāma ...

Manjushri

Mañjusrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā in Mahāyāna Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means "Gentle Glory"(Chinese:妙吉祥, 妙乐)in Sanskrit. Mañjusrī is also known by the fuller name of Mañjusrīkumārabhūta, l ...

Niguma

Niguma is considered one of the most important and influential yoginis and Vajrayana teachers of the 10th or 11th century in India. She was a dakini, and one of the two female founders of the Shangpa Kagyu school of Vajrayana Buddhism, along with ...

Padmasambhava

Padmasambhava, also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Buddhist master from the Indian subcontinent. Although there was a historical Padmasambhava, little is known of him apart from helping the construction of the first Buddhist monastery ...

Pasenadi

Pasenadi was an Aiksvāka dynasty ruler of Kosala. Sāvatthī was his capital. He succeeded after Sanjaya Mahākosala. He was a prominent Upāsaka of Gautama Buddha, who built many Buddhist monasteries.

Sadāparibhūta

Sadāparibhūta Bodhisattva, Never Disparaging Bodhisattva, appears in Lotus Sutra Chapter 20 which describes the practices of Bodhisattva Never Disparaging, who lived in the Middle Period of the Law of the Buddha Awesome Sound King. He persevered ...

Samantabhadra

Samantabhadra is a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism associated with practice and meditation. Together with Gautama Buddha and his fellow bodhisattva Mañjusrī, he forms the Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and, a ...

Sarvanivarana-Vishkambhin

Sarvanivāranaviskambhin is a bodhisattva revered in Mahāyāna Buddhism. He is one of the Eight Great Bodhisattvas with Mañjusrī, Samantabhadra, Avalokitesvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, Ākāsagarbha, Ksitigarbha and Maitreya.

Seto Machindranath

Seto Machindranath, also known as Janabaha Dyo, Avalokitesvara, Karunamaya, Guanyin is a deity worshiped by both Hindus and Buddhists in Kathmandu, Nepal. The temple of Seto Machindranath is located in Jana Bahal. Located at Keltole between Ason ...

Sitatapatra

Sitātapatrā is a protector against supernatural danger in Buddhism. She is venerated in both the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions. She is also known as Usnīsa Sitātapatrā. It is believed that Sitātapatrā is a powerful independent deity emanated ...

Skanda (Buddhism)

Skanda, also known as Wei Tuo and Idaten is a Mahayana bodhisattva regarded as a devoted guardian of Buddhist monasteries who protects the teachings of Buddhism. He is also sometimes called in the Chinese tradition "Hufa Weituo Zuntian Pusa", mea ...

Suchandra

According to Indian and Tibetan legend, King Suchandra of the northeastern Indian Kingdom of Shambhala was the one who requested teaching from the Buddha that would allow him to practice the dharma without renouncing his worldly enjoyments and re ...

Thang Tong Gyalpo

Thangtong Gyalpo, also known as Chakzampa, the "Iron Bridge Maker", Tsondru Zangpo "Excellent Persistence", and the King of the Empty Plain. He was also known by a variation of this name, Madman of the Empty Valley. He was a great Buddhist adept, ...

Ten Bodhisattas

Dasabodhisattuppattikathā "Ten Bodhisattva Birth Stories" or "Lives of the Ten Bodhisattvas" is a Pali Buddhist text that deals with ten future Buddhas during their lives as bodhisattvas. It is a "strange small work of late Pali literature" and " ...

Vajrapani

Vajrapāni is one of the earliest-appearing bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of Gautama Buddha and rose to symbolize the Buddhas power. Vajrapāni is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as one of the earl ...

Vajrasattva

Vajrasattva is a bodhisattva in the Mahayana, Mantrayana/Vajrayana Buddhist traditions. In the Japanese Vajrayana school of Buddhism, Shingon, Vajrasattva is the esoteric aspect of the bodhisattva Samantabhadra and is commonly associated with the ...

Vasudhara

Vasudhārā, whose name means "stream of gems" in Sanskrit, is the Buddhist bodhisattva of wealth, prosperity, and abundance. She is popular in many Buddhist countries and is a subject in Buddhist legends and art. Originally an Indian bodhisattva, ...

Visistacaritra

Visistacāritra is a bodhisattva mentioned in the 15th, 21st, and 22nd chapters of the Lotus Sutra. He is one of the four great perfected bodhisattvas who attends Gautama Buddha and protects the Lotus Sutra and its devotees. The other three are An ...

Ivan Aleksandrovich Flerov

Ivan Aleksandrovich Flerov was a Soviet educationist, journalist, and writer on problems of religion and atheism. In 1923, Flerov, in co-authorship with V. Ananiev, published a textbook titled "Morning Dawns: The second book for reading", which i ...

Johann Gockel-Ehrlich

Johann Gockel-Ehrlich was an Austrian communist. He was an activist in the Austrian and Soviet communist movement, and editor-in-chief of Neuland magazine.

Moses Alkabetz

Moses ha-Levi Alkabetz was a prominent rabbi of the first half of the sixteenth century. In around 1530 he officiated as dayan at Safed. He seems also to have studied the Kabbalah, since Isaac ibn Shoshan of Safed wrote a kabbalistic work for him ...

Moses Botarel

Moses Botarel was a Spanish scholar who lived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. He was a pupil of Jacob Sefardi, who instructed him in the Kabbala. Moses studied medicine and philosophy; the latter, he regarded as a divine science which ...

Abraham Cohen de Herrera

Abraham Cohen de Herrera, also known as Alonso Nunez de Herrera or Abraham Irira, was a religious philosopher and cabbalist. He is supposed by the historian Heinrich Graetz to have been born in 1570. He is widely supposed to have been descended f ...

Ezra ben Isaac Fano

Ezra ben Isaac Fano was Rabbi of Mantua and cabalist who lived in the 16th and 17th centuries. Fano was a pupil of the cabalist Israel Saruk, and among his own pupils were Menahem Azariah da Fano, Jacob the Levite, and Issachar Baer Eulenburg. On ...

Yekutiel Gordon

Yekutiel ben Yehudah Leib Gordon was a Kabbalist and physician from Vilna, and one of the main disciples of Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto. As such, he was one of the main conduits of Luzzattos teachings from Padua to Eastern Europe. Gordon came to I ...

Chaim HaKohen

His father was Rabbi Abraham HaKohen, who belonged to a famous family of Kohanim, descendants of Yosef HaCohen from Spain. As a child, while his classmates spent their free time playing, Chaim went to the synagogue to study Torah, and to learn ho ...

Nehemiah Hayyun

Nehemiah Hiyya ben Moses Hayyun was a Bosnian Kabalist. His parents, of Sephardic descent, lived in Sarajevo, Bosnia, where he was most likely born, though later in life he pretended that he was a Palestinian emissary born in Safed. He received h ...

Jehiel ben Solomon Heilprin

He was a descendant of Solomon Luria, and traced his genealogy back through Rashi to the tanna Johanan HaSandlar. He was rabbi of Glusk, Minsk Voivodeship until 1711, when he was called to the rabbinate of Minsk, where he officiated also as head ...

Isaac ben Samuel of Acre

Isaac ben Samuel of Acre was a Jewish kabbalist who fled to Spain. According to Chaim Joseph David Azulai, Isaac ben Samuel was a pupil of Nachmanides.

Isaac de Leon

Isaac de Leon, who lived at Ocaña, in Toledo, Spain, was one of the last rabbis of Castile. He was a native of Leon, and a pupil of Isaac Campanton, and, like Moses de Leon, a kabbalist and a believer in miracles. Joseph Caro and others honored h ...

Yitzhak Kaduri

Yitzhak Kaduri Hebrew: יצחק כדורי ‎, Arabic: إسحاق كدوري ‎, also spelled Kadouri, Kadourie, Kedourie ; "Yitzhak" c. 1898 – 28 January 2006, was a renowned Mizrahi Haredi rabbi and kabbalist who devoted his life to Torah study and prayer on behalf ...

Yom-Tov Lipmann-Muhlhausen

Yom-Tov Lipmann ben Solomon Muhlhausen was a controversialist, Talmudist, kabalist and philosopher of the 14th and 15th centuries. His religious and scholarly career and influence spanned the Jewish communities of Bohemia, Poland, Austria and var ...

List of Jewish Kabbalists

This page lists figures in Kabbalah according to historical chronology and schools of thought. In popular reference, Kabbalah has been used to refer to the whole history of Jewish mysticism, but more accurately, and as used in academic Jewish stu ...

Menahem Recanati

Menahem ben Benjamin Recanati was an Italian rabbi who was born and died in the city of Recanati, who devoted the chief part of his writings to the Kabbala.

Moshe ben Machir

Moshe ben Machir was rabbi and kabbalist of Safed who lived in the 16th century. He is primarily known as the author of the book Seder haYom, source of the Modeh Ani prayer.

Israel Sarug

Israel Sarug Ashkenazi was a pupil of Isaac Luria, and devoted himself at the death of his master to the propagation of the latters Kabbalistic system, for which he gained many adherents in various parts of Italy. Among these the most prominent w ...

Joseph Taitazak

Joseph ben Solomon Taitazak, also referred to by the acronym MahaRITaTS, was a talmudic authority and kabalist who lived at Salonica in the 15th and 16th centuries. He was a member of the Taitazak family. With his father and brother Judah ben Sol ...

Naphtali Hirsch Treves

Naphtali Hirsch ben Eliezer Treves was a kabalist and scholar of the 16th century who officiated as Hazzan in Frankfort-on-the-Main. He was the author of Perush, a famous cabalistic commentary on the Siddur, and probably also of Naftule Elohim, a ...

Samuel ben Isaac de Uçeda

Rabbi Samuel ben Isaac de Uçeda was a Jewish commentator and preacher. Born at Safed in the first quarter of the sixteenth century, his name, Uçeda, originally was derived from the town Uceda in the archbishopric of Toledo. He was a pupil of Isaa ...

Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah

Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah was a Portuguese kabalist and physician. He received a medical training in his native country as a Marrano, but fled about 1619 to Safed and devoted himself to the Talmud and the casuists until 1625; then he went to Damascu ...